Printing ISSN 2664 – 1674
Online ISSN 2664 – 1682

Negation and Pronoun Position as a way of investigating verb movement and the emergence of do support during Early Modern English
Date Published: 2021-07-07 <> Date Received: 2021-06-13
Aisha Fathi Abugharsa (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... This paper presents an analysis of the rise of do support and the gradual loss of verb movement during the period of Early Modern English. The analysis focuses on studying the structures in which do support was first used as an alternative to verb raising to I. It takes into consideration the analysis of the relationship between the position of the negation marker not in negative interrogative structures and the position of the subject and the object pronouns in these structures. The analysed structures are negative interrogatives taken from Shakespeare’s works in the period of Early Modern English. The results of the data analysis show that in most cases, there is do support when the subject pronouns are above negation, while there is no do support when object pronouns appear above negation. This suggests that do was first inserted here to avoid object raising with the verb to I or to C to avoid putting object and subject pronouns in subsequent positions.

Keywords : verb raising,do support,negative interrogatives

Il pataffio di Luigi Malerba, tra storicità e attualità. Una società in crisi e la lotta di classe
Date Published: 2021-07-07 <> Date Received: 2021-06-18
Fawzi Mohamad Issa (كلية الألسن – جامعة عين شمس)

Abstract... This study aims to analyze Luigi Malerba's novel Il pataffio, from a new perspective, namely that of its double value between historicity and actuality. Despite being set in the Middle Ages, the work reflects not only the social and political reality experienced and perceived by the writer in Italy in the sixties and seventies, but also reflects the contemporary one in other parts of the world. The novel is therefore nothing more than a denunciation of the multiform crisis of numerous contemporary societies where values are lacking, and where evil dominates in all its forms. By analyzing the plot of the work and the development of its story we will try to outline the traits of totalitarian regimes and highlight the catastrophic consequences of absolutism. The study will also highlight the similarity of the class struggle in the novel and the conditions experienced by some peoples under totalitarian regimes, especially in the countries of the Arab Spring, where the rebellion of the peoples and their revolution against the tyrants were the protagonist of the scene in the last few years.

Keywords : Il pataffio ,Malerba ,lotta di classe

The Reality of Social Responsibility of Lecturers at the Faculty of Arts (Misurata University)
Date Published: 2021-07-24 <> Date Received: 2021-07-12
Ahlam Sulaiman Ismiew (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... The university is an educational institution that always seeks for the producing/developing knowledge and capabilities, besides the preparation of manpower; to empower these forces in various areas of life, therefore the university bears a great responsibility, and lecturers have the greatest burden to achieve that by carrying out their responsibilities towards the students, college, and the community. This study aims to know the reality of the social responsibility from the point of view of lecturers at the Faculty of Arts, Misurata University. This is a descriptive and analytical study, as it relied on a survey, by distributing a questionnaire to a sample of (40) lecturers at the Faculty of Arts - Misurata University, the sample was randomly selected. After data have been collected and analyzed statistically, it has shown that there are statistically significant differences in the reality of the lecturers' social responsibility towards students according to the gender variable. On the other hand, there are no statistically significant differences in the reality of the lecturers' social responsibility towards the university according to the degree variable.

Keywords : Social Responsibility,University Students,Lecturers

Teacher Power and Gender in the Classroom Discourse of EFL Teacher Educators: Insights from a case study
Date Published: 2021-08-09 <> Date Received: 2021-07-07
Reda Elmabruk (كلية التربية ، جامعة طرابلس كلية التربية ، جامعة طرابلس)

Nesrin Etarhuni (كلية التربية ، جامعة طرابلس كلية التربية ، جامعة طرابلس)

Abstract... How Teacher Power (TP) is exerted impacts affective learning and class participation. This mixed-method case-study research explores TP and the role of gender in a Libyan EFL Teacher Education context. Classroom discourse is analysed to determine the scale of Teacher Power Strategies (TPS) manipulated by both male and female educators with respect to Pro-social Teacher Power (PTP) and Anti-social Teacher Power (ATP). Six teacher educators (three males and three females) have been observed over 18 lectures involving 47 second-semester students. How the student teachers perceive and react to TP is explored through focus group interviews. The findings reveal interesting gender differences in the application of anti and pro-social power; the males’ TP ratio (2.3:1) is much greater than the females’ (1.5:1) who display far less ATP, e.g. command power, with zero criticism and zero coercion; PTP is distinguished by politeness and compliment; “command softening”, mitigated power and lowered anxiety. The students tolerate teachers’ command, interruption, questioning for pedagogic reasons; cases of unwarranted coercion and unconstructive criticism are met with silent protest. In conclusion, a balance of power is deemed essential in fostering students’ well-being, promoting a relaxed stress-free atmosphere, and facilitating active student participation.

Keywords : Classroom discourse,gender difference,; Libyan EFL teacher education

The Effect of English Language Proficiency Level on Undergraduate Libyan Students’ Use of Subject Verb Agreement
Date Published: 2021-08-23 <> Date Received: 2021-07-15
Eman A. Elmejie (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Fatima M. Elzawawi (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)
Amel M. Msimeer (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... This study aims to examine the proficiency level of Libyan EFL (English as a Foreign Language) undergraduate students in terms of the types of subject-verb agreement errors they commit. It also attempts to identify, analyze and categorize the frequency errors related to subject-verb agreement into three categories. These errors are statically analyzed and classified into: subject-verb agreement (SVA) errors with third person singular subjects (TPSS), with third person plural subjects (TPPS), with compound subjects (CS). The participants of this study were 40 intermediate and advanced students whose major is English at the Faculty of Arts in Misurata University, Libya. They were chosen based on their level of English language proficiency during the current study. The data of this study were collected through a written test consisting of six short passages. The results showed that the percentage of errors made by both groups was below 30% which refers to non-significant differences among the two groups with respect to the SVA errors made by them. Consequently, it can be concluded that language proficiency has little effect on the participants' use of the SVA rule. It was also found that subject-verb agreement errors with (TPPS) were the least frequent, and the most common errors committed were (CS) and (TPSS). This study is important for EFL teachers to be aware of the subject verb agreement errors that their target learners commonly produce. The implications for SLA research and classroom teaching practice are given for foreign language teachers and researchers.

Keywords : Third person Singular Subject,Subject Verb Agreement ,Third Person Plural Subject

A Study in some of Gadamer’s Hermeneutic Terms
Date Published: 2021-09-13 <> Date Received: 2021-08-15
Khaled Sebaie (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة )

Abstract... Each of sciences has its own terminology, so also philosophy has its own, even if philosophy is thought and its method is the thought of thought. Philosophy has what distinguishes it from other sciences as it is based on various philosophical systems, doctrines and trends, with the diversity of the philosophers cultures, due to the difference between them that is mainly due to their cultures, even to their environments and religions that formed their visions and philosophies, therefore, philosophy in general, although it is seen by those who do not specialize in it as having a common orientation, but in reality are disciplines that have similarities, differences and even contradictions, according to the logic that forms the basis of each philosophy, for example, realistic philosophy is not idealistic one, and scientific materialist philosophy is not a bio-spiritual one. Likewise, the analytical-mathematical trend is not the human one, for each trend has its themes, its system, its philosophers, and its philosophy that characterizes it with its character and distinguishes it from others, its subject is a meeting with existence through language, thus combining existence and man, the worlds of man and what he suffers and what he aims for in one crucible. Hermeneutics has its philosophers from “Schleirmacher” through “Dilthey” to “Gadamer”. Accordingly, the research is limited to dealing with some of “Gadamer’s” hermeneutic terms, in an effort to clarify them, reveal their ambiguity, and determine their implications and connotations, especially since he made hermeneutics a step forward when he took it to the “linguistic” stage, when he saw that the existence that can be understood is language.

Keywords : Interpretation,Understanding,Consciousness-Text

Terminology of Structuralism Field and Establishing its Concepts
Date Published: 2021-09-27 <> Date Received: 2021-09-05
Hanan Abu Seksaka (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة )

Abstract... This research aims to identify the origins of the terminology of the structural field and to establish its concepts in the Western Space, their formulation mechanism in the Arab Space and the reasons of their multiplicity. This paper reached a number of results, the most important ones are; the terms and concepts of the structural field in Western space, some of their origins descend to other non-linguistic fields, including philosophy, mathematics, psychology, etc. The Arab field, the mechanisms for developing terminology of this field varied between translation, coining, and loanwords. Terminology varied according to multiplicity of their setting mechanisms, between translated, coined, and loanwords. Translated terms diversify according to varying the criteria of setting the term, translators and who come first to give them such criteria. Some of loanwords diverse according to the diverse of their source languages. Terminology multiplicity diversify according to their transferees and diversify according to the transferee themselves in the book itself. The reasons behind this are either taking into account the backgrounds of readers, or the transferee’s confusion on a term, which are found in theoretical or applied books. Concerning documenting common and accepted synonyms for the term is the norm of most dictionaries.

Keywords : structuralism,structure,instantaneous

Concepts in Aesthetics
Date Published: 2021-10-12 <> Date Received: 2021-09-08
Faisal Elkharraz (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... The research deals with topics of arts and aesthetics, and aims to clarify the art of Aesthetics disciplines and its importance in spreading aesthetic awareness and developing an aesthetic taste. The importance of studying the sciences of aesthetics will refine talents and enable amateurs and those interested to understand and comprehend the meanings and implications that art works aim at, as it is a manifestation of expression used by the creative person to convey what he feels from feelings and emotions latent in his conscience that language is unable to describe. We also review the dialectical relationship between art, religion and ethics and their impact on the levels of production and aesthetic creativity.

Keywords : Aesthetic Judgments ,Fine Arts ,Aesthetic Intent

Al-Suyuti 's History Approach through his Book “Al-Shamareikh in the Science of History”
Date Published: 2021-11-07 <> Date Received: 2021-10-11
Saleem Shreiri (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... This research that entitled (Al-Suyuti 's History Approach through his Book “Al-Shamareikh in the Science of History”) deals with the discussion of the principle of history in general and how the ancient Arabs used to document natural manifestations such as stars and crescents, or other great events in which humanity had a role, such as events like the year of the Elephant, the construction of Kaaba and so on, until Islam came, since then, they used the Prophet's Mohammed migration as a date which was the basis of Islamic history, and the matter has continued on that to this day. This was confirmed by the author of Al-Suyuti regarding the organization and historical sequence of the course of the date calendar, as he presented at the beginning of his talk, the principle of history, then the Hijri date, followed by the benefits of the history which were many and various and reviewed by days, months and years.

Keywords : the principle of history,Al-Shamreikh,Al-Suyuti.

The Role of Administrative Communication in The Process of Educational Decision-making Among the Principals of The Basic Schools in The Locality of Khartoum
Date Published: 2021-11-08 <> Date Received: 2021-10-09
Bannaga Taha Elzubair Hussen (جامعة الخرطوم)

Amira Mohmmed Ali (جامعة السودان للعلوم والتكنولوجيا)
Emam Habaib Mohammed (جامعة السودان للعلوم والتكنولوجيا)

Abstract... The aim of the research is to identify the role of administrative communication in the educational decision-making process of the principals of the basic schools from the point of view of teachers in the locality of Khartoum. The researchers used the descriptive approach, and the study community may be of 1,172 teachers. The researchers selected a simple random sample of 186 teachers. The researchers used resolution as a key tool for collecting the required data, and for analyzing data The researchers used SPSS. The research reached many conclusions, the most important of which is that the skills of school principals were very highly appreciated, and that the nature of the relationship between administrative communication and decision-making was highly appreciated, as well as the requirements of administrative communication for educational decision-making among school principals, and that the obstacles to administrative communication that limit the educational decision-making process came with an average estimate. In the light of the findings, the research concluded several recommendations, including: the need to take care of the Internet and use it as a means of communication, as well as to exploit the current technology in the speed of the communication process, and to establish an internal network linking the school with the Department of Education and the Ministry.

Keywords : Administrative Communication,Administrative Communication Constraints,Decision-making

The Intentionality in the Arabic Grammatical Discourse -Cognitive reading-
Date Published: 2021-11-19 <> Date Received: 2021-10-11
Fazia Tiguercha (جامعة مولود معمري -تيزي وزو- الجزائر)

Abstract... This research aims to study the intentionality in the ancient arabic grammatical discourse using the first grammarians appraoch to reveal the intentions of speakers and show the grammatical rules in their discoyrs as it represents the mental system of linguistic achievements. The research reached a set of results, the most important of which is the association of the approach of purposes in the ancient Arab heritage with interpretation. It is not possible to say for sure that the purposes of the speakers are reached, but grammar seeks to approach them with linguistic- cognitive-communicative requirements, interacting with each other in a manner that does not contradict, which ensures an unequivocally sound communication process.

Keywords : Intentionality,Interpretation,Cognitive linguistics

Oncology Treatment in Islamic Civilization
Date Published: 2021-11-23 <> Date Received: 2021-10-11
Khayriyah Mustafa Al Siwi (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abdullah Salem Bazina (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة )
Mohamed Ahmed Al-Faqih (المعهد القومي للأورام مصراتة)

Abstract... Tumors are a type of common or chronic diseases that have confronted man since ancient times. The oldest description and treatment of tumors were found in Egypt, dating back to the year 1600 BC. AD, for a number of cases on papyrus written at the end of which “there is no cure for this disease”, as the Greeks knew the diagnosis of this Disease, including Hippocrates (460-370 BC), who mentions that he was the first to diagnose tumors, calling them malignant tumors, so that the word tumor comes from the word (onklogic) from the Greek language (onkos), which means tumor, size or mass, so it is called His study of oncology, and after the movement of translation and transmission that the Islamic Caliphate witnessed in its golden age, the Greek manuscripts were translated. Then there was surgery to remove tumors and they invented many surgical instruments.

Keywords : tumors,Islamic civilization,cancer

Scientific Hypothesis: Essence, Types, and Methods of Verification
Date Published: 2021-12-05 <> Date Received: 2021-08-15
Yeza Abdulrhman Mesbah Abdulrhman (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... It is well-known that the experimental method has three steps: the research step, discovery stage, and the proof step. Since observation and experiment are the main components of the research step, scientific hypotheses are considered as a complement to these components. The reason for that is when we make observations and conduct experiments, we aim to reach the general principle or the law. As the verification of the validity of this hypothesis or that, it takes place in the proof step. After verification of the validity of the empirical hypothesis, it becomes a general law, and from this point of view, the scientific hypothesis is an essential element in the experimental method, as it represents the starting point in every experimental inference, and without it, it would not be possible to do any research, or acquire any knowledge. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to shed light on the scientific hypothesis and clarifies its form and its function in the experimental science, as well as stating the types of hypotheses and determining their conditions, and how to verify them.

Keywords : Scientific Hypothesis,Cause,Essence,Scientific discovery

Cartographic Representation of the Shapes and Sizes of Administrative Divisions Resulting from Changes in the Administrative Map of the Municipality of Misurata for the Period from 1951 to 2015
Date Published: 2021-12-05 <> Date Received: 2021-11-20
Mustafa Mansour Jahan (كلية الآداالأكاديمية الليبية مصراتة/ ليبياب/جامعة مصراتة )

Abstract... This study aimed to map the shapes and sizes of the administrative units in the municipality of Misurata, and to show the differences that occurred on the administrative map of the region in the form and size of administrative units as a result of the changes that occurred on its administrative borders during the successive historical stages, starting from 1951 to the last administrative division in 2015. Using GIS software. The study reached several results, including the difference in the general shape of the administrative map of Misurata between one division and another. The continuous change in the administrative map of the country in general produced multiple problems that affected development opportunities and applied and theoretical studies.

Keywords : Digital map,Cartography,Geo referencing,Digitization

Obstacles to Using Search Engines among Graduate Students at the Faculty of Arts, Misurata University
Date Published: 2021-12-12 <> Date Received: 2021-11-24
Nabila Beleed Saad (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Hamida Tohamy Endish (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... The research aims to identify the obstacles to using search engines among graduate students at the Faculty of Arts, Misurata University, by answering the following two questions: 1- What are the obstacles to using search engines among graduate students at the Faculty of Arts, Misurata University from the students’ point of view? 2- Are there statistically significant differences in the degree to which the sample members estimate the obstacles to using search engines among postgraduate students at the Faculty of Arts, Misurata University, due to the variables of gender, academic stage, and occupational degree? The research community consisted of all (209) postgraduate students, and in order to achieve the objectives of the research, the two researchers designed a questionnaire whose number of paragraphs was (28) divided into three areas and presented to a group of arbitrators to ensure its validity and to calculate the reliability coefficient using the split-half., where the overall stability coefficient of the tool (0.85). In order to reach the results, the most important of them are: 1- The number of achieved paragraphs was (12) paragraphs, and their percentage weight ranged between (81.4-60). 2- The number of unfulfilled items was (16) items, and their percentage weight ranged between (66-40.4). 3- There are no differences in the degree to which the sample members estimate the obstacles to using search engines among postgraduate students due to the variables of gender and occupation.

Keywords : Obstacles,Search engines,Students

The effectiveness of a training program based on a metacognitive strategy to treat reading learning difficulties
Date Published: 2021-12-12 <> Date Received: 2021-11-20
Mohamed Shermit (كلية التربية – جامعة مصراتة)

Ahlam Bn-Salah (كلية التربية/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... This research aims to identify the effectiveness of a training program based on a metacognitive strategy to treat reading difficulties. In this research, the empirical method is adopted, and the research sample consists of (14) people, including (7) males and (7) females. The tools of research I use in my study are; the reading difficulties scale, the Raven's Progressive Matrices, the socio-economic level form, and the metacognitive training program. The results showed that there were statistically significant differences in the average levels of the students of the two groups of students in the stage of post application of reading difficulties strategy. In addition to the differences in the average grades of the students in the sample group between the stages of pre and post application of the strategy

Keywords : Metacognition strategy,Reading difficulties,Training Program

Standardisation of The Advanced Progressive Matrices Scale for Preparatory and Secondary Schools on Misurata City
Date Published: 2021-12-18 <> Date Received: 2021-11-28
Khalid Mohamed Elmadani (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة )

Salwa A. Aldolha (الأكاديمية الليبية - فرع مصراتة)

Abstract... The research aims to standardize the Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices test (APM) for use in the city of Misurata. The research sample included (1030) male and female students from the city of Misurata (515 females and 515 males), whose ages ranged between 12 and 17 years. The current research provided local norms (percentiles and intelligence quotient) from the performance of the research sample according to the variables of age and gender, suitable for use in the city of Misurata.

Keywords : Standardization,Raven Advanced Progressive Matrices Test,Intelligence tests

Landfill Site Evaluation and Planning in MisurataMunicipalty Using Geographic Information System
Date Published: 2021-12-19 <> Date Received: 2021-11-22
Fatma Ahmed Abdulati (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... The study aimed at assessing the locational suitability of the two-interim landfills (Alghiran and Alkarareem) in Misurata municipalty utilizing GIS technique. The study, as well as, searched the possibility of finding new, safe burial waste sites. It did so according to some standards of Basel Convetion, and these are: keeping away from mainraods, keeping away from airports, keeping away from waste-generating sources, ground use, soil type, slope and groung water depth. The obtained data was analyzed using spatial analysis, so that the evaluation of the studied landfills was given by means of analytic hierarchy. In conclusion, it was found that the two landfills scored conflictual results. Whereas Alghiran Lndfill achieved a low degree of suitability (23 degrees), which does not agree with the study standards, Alkrarareem interim burial waste got a a high-suitability degree (37 degrees) and this meets most Basel Convention standards. It was also revealed that an area of about 320.8 km2 in the municipality can be considered suitable for future, safe burial waste sites.

Keywords : Spatial Analysis,Interim Landfill,Environmental Planning

Quality Standards and Labor Market Requirements in Curricula of Faculty of Education at Misurata University
Date Published: 2021-12-21 <> Date Received: 2021-11-26
Bennassr. Mustafa (كلية التربية/جامعة مصراتة)

Huda . Eqzeet (كلية التربية/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... The research aims to identify the availability of quality standards and labor market requirements in the curricula of Faculty of Education, Misurata University from the point of view of the teaching stuff, and whether there is a difference in the opinions of faculty teaching stuff about the availability of quality standards and labor market requirements in the curricula of the Faculty of Education at University Misurata according to the two variables (educational qualification, years of experience), and the research community represents all (217) teaching stuff in the Faculty of Education, Misurata University. The researchers relied on the questionnaire as a tool for data collection consisting of six fields (educational objectives - communication with the community - curriculum content design - educational activities - evaluation – training). Based on the answers to the research questions, these results have been concluded

Keywords : Quality standards, labor market requirements,Faculty of Education curricula

Obstacles of Distance Education in Light of Corona Pandemic from the Point of View of Basic Education Teachers in Misurata
Date Published: 2021-12-21 <> Date Received: 2021-12-15
Salima Omar Altieb (كلية الآداب/جامعة مصراتة)

Abstract... The research aims to know the obstacles of distance education in light of Corona pandemic (COVID-19) from the point of view of teachers of basic education in the city of Misurata. The researcher used the descriptive analytical method for its suitability to the nature of the research, The research sample consisted of (100) male and female teachers from a community of (300) male and female teachers from (8) schools, and a questionnaire was used as a tool to collect data represented in the responses of the research sample on the topic of the research and extracting its validity and reliability, and analyzing the sample responses statistically by means of arithmetic averages and standard deviations, and a one-way analysis of variance test for significance of differences. It also resulted in the absence of statistically significant differences due to the variables of years of experience.

Keywords : Distance learning,basic education,Corona Pandemic

Issue 18- Full
Date Published: 2021-12-23 <> Date Received: 0000-00-00